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Cosworth story

 

Little story of the most successful F1 engine in history:
Ford Cosworth DFV
dominated in Formula 1 from 1967 to 1983

 

Formula 1 engine Ford Cosworth DFV
           Ford Cosworth DFV, engine which dominated Formula 1 in period from 1967 to 1983 (Click on picture)

 

Statement "most successful F1 engine in history" is not completely right. Cosworth as a company has supplied 67 Formula One teams with engines over the last 48 years. But most victorious F1 engine is Ferrari engine, whose engines have been behind (and sometimes in front) of 217 Grand Prix-winning cars. 216 Ferrari cars victories and one, 2008 Italian GP, won by a Toro Rosso, car powered by a Ferrari engine, and the first of many for its driver, Sebastian Vettel. The first Ferrari engine victory was at the 1951 British GP.
Ford Cosworth-engined cars won 176 GPs, many of them with the legendary Cosworth DFV engine, which dominated F1 racing for a long time (12 of the 15 world titles between 1968 and 1982 were won by drivers with Ford-Cosworth engines). The only other engine with more than 100 GP wins is Renault, with 142, although Mercedes is closing in, currently with 88. At the other end of the scale Porsche and Weslake engines have had one GP success apiece. Statistics are till the end of season 2011.

Costin Duckworth and Hayes
Costin, Duckworth and Hayes with their new engine, DFV, the future of Formula 1


Keith Duckworth and Mike Costin founded the company Cosworth in 1958 in a little shop with just the basics, like an engine stand, in Shaftsbury Mews, London, England. The two Englishmen wrote their own success story for over 20 years before Cosworth was sold for the first time in 1980 to United Engineering Industries. However, both continued to be involved in the firm even when it changed hands again later.
In 1990, after Duckworth's retirement, the Vickers Group took over the ownership
and then, in 1998, sold Cosworth Engineering to the Audi Group, with a potentially dramatic effect on Ford's racing program, until the company was split in two: Cosworth Technology (including the engineering, manufacturing and casting units) stayed with the the Audi Group, while Ford Motor Company took control of Cosworth Racing.
Finally, Mahle Group, one of the leading independent engine specialists, with over $4 billion in annual revenues, acquired Cosworth Technology from Audi, and renamed it to Mahle Powertrain.
Duckworth and Costin made the pages of motor sports history in openwheel, rally and closedwheel racing over the years. Their accomplishment in Formula One tops the charts.
The first assignment that the two new partners accepted after the founding of the new company was to develop parts for the Ford road car engines, concentrating on the Mk1 -- a modified 4-cylinder pushrod Ford 105E Anglia engine.

Cosworth
Chapman was on the look out for a new engine for 1967, but he struggled to find one. He then contacted his old friends Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth, the founders of the Cosworth engine tuning company. Using a Ford four cylinder as a base, the Cosworth team first developed a 16-valve 1600 cc FVA engine for Formula 2. It would form the basis for the three litre V8 readied for the 1967 season. Dubbed the DFV (Double Four Valve), the new engine was completely cast from aluminium in the Cosworth factory. Cosworth DFV was exceptionally rigid and Chapman used this to the fullest when he designed the Lotus 49 F1 car. The racer used an aluminium monocoque chassis that stretched no further than the bulkhead behind the driver. The V8 was bolted directly onto this chassis and took all of the rear suspension load, wich was a much lighter and cleaner solution than using a rear subframe. Jim Clark’s Lotus 49, was the chassis that used a Cosworth DFV for the first time. DFV is a bit like Ferrari or Renault in that it is impossible to imagine the Formula 1 without either, while all otherengines seem to be largely expendable.

Cosworth has had a long and distinguished career in Formula One, beginning in 1963. The 3.0 ltr V8 DFV engine won everything going in F1 for years (154 victories over the various generations of the engine) and some would say the ‘new’ V8's in F1 owe a lot to it’s existence.
In 1966, Duckworth designed the DFV (Double Four-Valve) F1 engine on behalf of Ford Motor Company, at the time, he simply stated, "We are too small as a company to allow development and debugging to win over sound design."

DFV engine featured 16 valves operated by twin overhead camshafts driven by a train of 9 gears. The metering unit for the Lucas mechanical fuel injection was rotated by gear and belt from the inlet cam, while the exhaust cam drove an alternator on the rear of the head. It produced at least 225 brake horsepower (168 kW) at 9000 rpm. This engine dominated Formula 1 until 1971, and was also used in sports car racing in 1.8 litre form as the FVC. The FVA was notable for being part of the same Ford contract that gave rise to the DFV; the cylinder head on the FVA pioneered many of Duckworth's ideas that would be used on the V8 engine.


Walter Hayes, the public affairs director at Ford, in turn, offered the engine to Lotus, which had been stranded without competitive engine following the withdrawal of Coventry Climax after FIA changed to the three-litre formula for the 1966 season.
That three-litre V8 engine, which debuted in 1967, turned out to become the most successful Formula One engine of all time, winning their first race out of the box.

cosworth DFV engine in ligier JS11
Cosworth DFV engine in ligier JS11 (click on picture to hear the sound of Cosworth DSV)

The DFV won on its first outing, at the 1967 Dutch Grand Prix in the hands of Jim Clark, fitted to a Lotus 49, and from 1968 was available for purchase to any F1 team that wished it. During the 1970s, it was common for almost the entire field (with the notable exception of Ferrari) to use one of these engines - this at a time when independent wealthy individuals could buy exactly the same engine off the shelf that was also being used by McLarenl. Most teams just built a tub around a Cosworth DFV and a Hewland gearbox. It won a record 155 World Championship races, the last being Detroit in 1983, powering a Tyrrell driven by Michele Alboreto.

Coswortk DFV V8 internals
It's somewhat ironic that Keith Duckworth (August 10, 1933 – December 19, 2005) passed away on the eve of Formula 1 returning to a V8 forumula just as Duckworth's DFV pioneered 39 years ago.


Running on "pump" gasoline, 1967's Cosworth DFV produced 133hp per liter. Astonishingly, the last Cosworth 3.0-liter, Formula 1 engine, fed comparable fuel and likewise naturally aspirated, produces about twice that! DFV of 1967 set the pattern for the contemporary engine with its "supersquare" (wider than higher) cylinder dimensions, its pent-roof shape combustion chamber, its narrow included valve angle, its four valves per cylinder operated by double overhead camshafts and its clean porting. The DFV was not radically different from previous engines, Its significance was that its detail design took advantage of the potential of four, rather than two valves per cylinder for enhanced breathing and burning - the fundamentals of effective combustion. Although the DFV did not produce as much power as some of its rival 12-cylinder engines, it was lighter, resulting in a better power to weight ratio. In addition to being lighter, it was also made a structural part of the car itself, by placing load bearing arms to stress the block. These design aspects appealed tremendously to the genius of Colin Chapman who used them to the fullest extent.

Duckworth and Chapman
Duckworth and Chapman, visionaries of Formula 1 DFV in front of them



The power output of the four-stroke internal combustion engine is a function of the torque seen at its flywheel and the speed at which that flywheel spins. Power per liter per 1000rpm as measured on the dyno is the so-called brake mean effective pressure (bmep) that indicates torque. The Vanwall of 1957 produced its 120hp per liter at 7300rpm, at that engine speed giving 16.44hp per liter per 1000rpm-a nitro- boosted peak power bmep reading of 14.7 bar. The DFV of 1967 produced its 133hp per liter at 8500rpm- 15.65hp per liter per 1000rpm, a peak power bmep reading of 14.0 bar. This fall in specific torque recognizes the far less potent fuel used in the DFV.

cosworth Formula 1 V10 engine
2006 F1-spec engine CA2006 2.4 litre V8, during a lab workup hit 20.002 RPMs, The highest recorded. In this time engines are runing 19.000 RPMs without upper limit imposed by FIA.

The increase in performance of the 3.0-liter engines is purely a function of faster flywheel (crankshaft) speed. To attain 800hp, a current F1 engine must turn in the region of 17-18,000rpm, which means its peak power bmep roughly equals that of the 1967 DFV. In fact, as crankshaft speed rises, the tendency is for bmep to fall - the combustion event has to take place in a correspondingly shorter time and frictional and other losses increase disproportionately. On the other side of the coin, the fact that the current F1 engine can match the peak power bmep of the DFV of 1967 running at half its speed is a tribute to considerable development devoted to overcoming the inevitable losses that occur with rising speed. It should be noted that some internal losses quadruple with the doubling of running speed. Measures to counteract these losses include a drastic reduction in bearing sizes, the development of high-performance coatings for the bearings, the piston and liner and so forth, and a conceptual revision of the oiling system.

Cosworth V8 formula 1 engine
New generation of Cosworth V8 Formula 1 engines

The 32-valve DFV V8 had an 85-67mm bore, while today's V8s have bore sizes in the region of 98mm maximum, with correspondingly larger valves (albeit aluminium alloys rather than the steel employed in 1967).
A key feature of 1967's DFV was its packaging. Very compact by the standard of this days. Significant benefit for the chassis designer, but compared to a current V10, it looks huge. Today's clutch is much smaller in diameter (115mm. now vs. 200mm then), the crankshaft is set significantly lower and the whole package is more tightly knit. While the cylinder count is the ultimate constraint, with some lateral thinking last season Cosworth reduced the size and weight of its engine by dispensing with traditional wet liners.
Another major development since '67 has been the advent of engine management systems. Contrary to popular belief, the precision of computer-timed ignition and fuel injection does not automatically increase maximum power, at least in the case of a pure race engine, but it does help keep everything running on cue as crankshaft speed rises.

Cosworth 2-litre Duratec ‘R’ engine powered Ford Martini World Rally Car
Cosworth 2-litre Duratec 'R' engine was behind the success of the Ford Martini World Rally Car 2001. Rally car engine developers must operate within FIA regulations that challenge technical innovation and still gain that essential competitive edge. In the 2001 version of its 2-litre Duratec ‘R’ engine, Cosworth Racing increased power output to 3% more than its predecessor, with better torque and decreased turbo lag.

More than 150 GP wins came on the engine that Duckworth designed, as the Ford Lotus team dominated F1 with his original design -- and a few modifications for increased power output and FIA rule changes. This feat has yet to be equaled in the racing world. Until, that is, the rise of the turbocharged engines and the end to the decade-long domination by Cosworth, Ford and Lotus.
"Turbochargers were for people who can't build engines," was a quote attributed to a frustrated Duckworth in the early 1980s.
Cosworth later built the DFZ and HBA 3.5L normally aspirated F1 engines for Ford, and supplied electronics to a wide variety of F1 engines. The company continues its involvement, and after 2 years out of Formula 1, they supply CA2010 V8 engines to AT&T Williams, LotusF1 Racing (later Caterham F1), Virgin Racing (now Marusia), HRT F1 during season 2010.
2006. Cosworth CA was the first Formula One engine to reach 20,000 rpm on track. From 1906 through to 2006, Grand Prix engine speeds rose ever higher, from less than 2000 rpm to ultimately a mind-boggling 20,000 rpm. Then the rule-maker abruptly halted the march of progress with a 19,000 rpm rev limit for 2007, subsequently reduced to the current 18,000. It is generally agreed that no rival surpassed it as the benchmark before rev limiting was imposed.
It is widely agreed that BMW reached 19,000 rpm first, in 2002. However, engine mileage requirements were lengthened in 2004 and 2005, which had the effect of pegging the ongoing crankshaft speed rise. Representative of the top 2005 V10s was the Toyota that ran to a maximum of 19,200 rpm and produced an estimated 930 bhp mid-season. All of the 2005 V10s exceeded 900 bhp but it is not thought that any exceeded 950 bhp, with the possible exception of the Honda at the end of the season.
Cosworth's 2005 V10 was the TJ model, which had its max RPM at 19,000 rpm. With next year model CA, Cosworth took the uncompromising approach of targeting 20,000 rpm from the outset. This was the first time it had produced such a high-speed V8. At 20,000 rpm the CA's maximum piston acceleration was 10,616 g while the load imparted on each crankpin by the associated piston and con rod reached a very substantial 5937 kg at that unprecedented speed. To put that into context, an anti-ballistic missile attains a g-force of only 100 g while 5937 kg is approximately two and a half times the weight of a Rolls Royce Wraith!

During 2012, Cosworth continued to supply Marussia and HRT on the F1 grid and is working on a 2014 powertrain when the sport will switch to V6 turbos.
On October 18, 2012 news broke out that Cosworth Group has been put up for sale after abandoning plans to float on the stock exchange. The Times reports that aircraft engine company Rolls-Royce and other aerospace companies are likely to be interested in buying the company after it has diversified in recent years.

 

Cosworth F1 car (Cosworth F1 4WD)

cosworth F1 car
cosworth F1 car
Cosworth F1 4WD Experimental Test Car 1969, the four-wheel drive Cosworth Formula One car

Cosworth made an attempt at designing a full Formula One Grand Prix car in 1969. The car, designed by Robin Herd, used an original 4WD transmission designed by Keith Duckworth (different from the Ferguson used by all other 4WD F1 cars of the 1960s) and powered by a magnesium version of the DFV unit. Duckworth himself developed this special 4WD DFV engine that was totally cast in magnesium, and a proprietary Cosworth gearbox containing Hewland gears, different from the Ferguson used by all other 4WD F1 cars of the 1960s.
As with every 4WD car the engine was turned 180 degrees with the clutch facing forward. From there the gearbox stepped down power by way of several gears to an angled central differential on the right hand side of the cockpit - creating a slightly off-set driving position. From the centre differential fore and aft shafts ran across the entire length of the wheelbase. The rearward shaft went to the back of the engine where a transfer box took power back to a centrally-positioned rear diff. By using the driveshaft inboard disc brakes could be employed at the front and the rear.
Same year Cosworth tested their 4WD car. It proved uneasy in roadholding with strong understeer and most weight moving to the outside wheel during cornering even lifting the inside wheel at times. Also excess understeer caused by the heavy front differential. They even persuaded Jackie Stewart to slip into the car for a few laps, who reported back that, "It's so heavy on the front, you turn into a corner and the whole thing starts driving you. The car tries to take you over."

The car was planned to drive at the 1969 British Grand Prix, they entered the car for Trevor Taylor to drive, but it was silently withdrawn.
When Herd left to form March Engineering, the project was cancelled. The external design of the car was a product of Herd's use of Mallite sheeting (a wood-aluminium laminate composite) for the principal structural monocoque sections, a technique he pioneered on the first McLaren single-seat cars, including the McLaren M2B of 1966.

 

Summary of Cosworth F1 engine use

Table from Wikipedia
Season Engine Type Disp. Teams Wins Notes
1963 4 I4 1.5 Stebro, Lotus, Brabham 0 Ford entered to Formula One with Cosworth's Ford 4 engine
1964 MAE I4 1.5 Cooper 0
LF I4 1.5 Brabham
1965 4 I4 1.5 Brabham, Lotus, Cooper 0
1967 FVA I4 1.6 Matra 4
  • Debut of DFV
  • Lotus second in Constructors' Championship
DFV V8 3.0 Lotus
1968 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, McLaren, Matra 11
  • Cosworth powered cars won all but one Grand Prix.
  • Graham Hill (Lotus) won Drivers Championship, 2nd and 3rd placed drivers were also Cosworth powered.
  • The 3 Cosworth-powered teams took 1st (Lotus), 2nd and 3rd places in the Constructors' Championship.
1969 DFV V8 3.0 Matra, Brabham, Lotus, McLaren 11
  • Cosworth powered cars won every Grand Prix this season.
  • Jackie Stewart (Matra) won Drivers Championship
  • Matra won Constructors' Championship.
1970 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, March, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Tyrrell, Bellasi, De Tomaso 8
  • Jochen Rindt (Lotus) posthumously won Drivers' Championship
1971 DFV V8 3.0 Tyrrell, March, Lotus, McLaren, Surtees, Brabham, Bellasi 7
  • Jackie Stewart (Tyrrell) won Drivers' Championship
  • Tyrrell won Constructors' Championship
1972 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Lotus, Tyrrell, Surtees, March, Brabham, Frank Williams Racing Cars, Connew 10
  • Emerson Fittipaldi (Lotus) won Drivers' Championship
  • McLaren won Constructors' Championship
1973 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Brabham, March, Shadow, Surtees, Iso Marlboro, Ensign 15
  • Cosworth powered cars won every Grand Prix this season.
  • Jackie Stewart (Tyrrell) won Drivers' Championship
  • Lotus won Constructors' Championship
1974 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Tyrrell, Lotus, Brabham, Hesketh, Shadow, March, Frank Williams Racing Cars, Surtees, Lola, Token, Trojan, Penske, Parnelli, Lyncar, Ensign, Amon, Maki 12
  • Emerson Fittipaldi (McLaren) won Drivers' Championship
1975 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Brabham, Hesketh, Tyrrell, Shadow, March, Lotus, Williams, Parnelli, Hill, Penske, Ensign, Fittipaldi, Lyncar, Lola, Maki, Surtees 8
  • Cosworth powered teams filled 2nd to 17th places in the Constructors' Championship
1976 DFV V8 3.0 Tyrrell, McLaren, Lotus, Penske, March, Shadow, Surtees, Fittipaldi, Ensign, Parnelli, Wolf-Williams, Williams, Kojima, Hesketh, Maki, Brabham, Boro 10
  • James Hunt (McLaren) won Drivers' Championship
1977 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, McLaren, Wolf, Tyrrell, Shadow, Fittipaldi, Ensign, Surtees, Penske, Williams, Boro, LEC, McGuire, Kojima, Hesketh, March 12
1978 DFV V8 3.0 Lotus, Tyrrell, Wolf, Fittipaldi, McLaren, Arrows, Williams, Shadow, Surtees, Ensign, Martini, Hesketh, ATS, Theodore, Merzario 9
  • Mario Andretti (Lotus) won Drivers' Championship
  • Lotus won Constructors' Championship
1979 DFV V8 3.0 Williams, Ligier, Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Arrows, Shadow, ATS, Fittipaldi, Kauhsen, Wolf, Brabham, Ensign, Rebaque, Merzario 8
  • Cosworth-powered teams took 2nd, 3rd and 4th place in Constructors Championship
1980 DFV V8 3.0 Williams, Ligier, Brabham, Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Arrows, Fittipaldi, Shadow, ATS, Osella, Ensign 11
  • Alan Jones (Williams) won Drivers' Championship
  • Williams won Constructors' Championship
1981 DFV V8 3.0 Williams, Brabham, McLaren, Lotus, Tyrrell, Arrows, Ensign, Theodore, ATS, Fittipaldi, Osella, March 8
  • Nelson Piquet (Brabham) won Drivers' Championship
  • Williams won Constructors' Championship
1982 DFV V8 3.0 McLaren, Williams, Lotus, Tyrrell, Brabham, Arrows, ATS, Osella, Fittipaldi, March, Theodore, Ensign 8
  • Keke Rosberg (Williams) won Drivers' Championship
1983 DFY V8 3.0 Williams, McLaren, Tyrrell 3
  • Michele Alboreto (Tyrrell) took the DFV series' final race victory at Detroit
DFV V8 3.0 Williams, McLaren, Tyrrell, Arrows, Lotus, Theodore, Osella, RAM, Ligier
1984 DFY V8 3.0 Tyrrell 0
DFV V8 3.0 Arrows, Spirit
1985 DFY V8 3.0 Tyrrell 0
DFV V8 3.0 Minardi
1986 GBA V6-T 1.5 Haas Lola 0
  • First Cosworth engine to use a turbo in F1, and first non-V8 V engine
1987 GBA V6-T 1.5 Benetton 0
  • Benetton reach 1000+ bhp with qualifying spec turbo engine
DFZ V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Larrousse, AGS, March, Coloni
1988 DFR V8 3.5 Benetton 0
DFZ V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Rial, Minardi, Coloni, Larrousse, AGS, EuroBrun, Dallara
DFV V8 3.0 Dallara
1989 HB V8 3.5 Benetton 1
  • Alessandro Nannini (Benetton) takes Cosworth's first win with a non-DFV engine design at Suzuka
DFR V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Arrows, Dallara, Minardi, Onyx, Ligier, Rial, AGS, Osella, Coloni
1990 HB V8 3.5 Benetton 2
DFR V8 3.5 Tyrrell, Arrows, Monteverdi, Ligier, Osella, Dallara, Coloni, AGS, Minardi
1991 HB V8 3.5 Benetton, Jordan 1
  • DFV-series' last F1 season (DFR)
DFR V8 3.5 Lola, Fondmetal, Coloni, AGS, Footwork
1992 HB V8 3.5 Benetton, Lotus, Fondmetal 1
  • Michael Schumacher's first Grand Prix victory comes in a Cosworth-powered Benetton-Ford
1993 HB V8 3.5 McLaren, Benetton, Lotus, Minardi 6
1994 EC Zetec-R V8 3.5 Benetton 8
  • Michael Schumacher (Benetton) won Drivers' Championship
HB V8 3.5 Footwork, Minardi, Larrousse, Simtek
1995 ECA Zetec-R V8 3.0 Sauber 0
  • ECA engine is a developed 3 litre version of the 3.5litre EC Zetec-R V8.
ED V8 3.0 Minardi, Forti, Simtek
1996 JD Zetec-R V10 3.0 Sauber 0
  • First Cosworth V10 design
ECA Zetec-R V8 3.0 Forti
ED V8 3.0 Minardi
1997 VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Stewart 0
ECA Zetec-R V8 3.0 Lola
ED V8 3.0 Tyrrell
1998 VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Stewart 0
JD Zetec-R V10 3.0 Tyrrell, Minardi
1999 CR-1 V10 3.0 Stewart 1
VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Minardi
2000 CR-2 V10 3.0 Jaguar 0
  • Ford use Cosworth for the engines' name, from this year
  • Minardi engines rebadged as Fondmetal
VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Minardi
2001 CR-3 V10 3.0 Jaguar 0
  • Minardi engines rebadged as European
VJ Zetec-R V10 3.0 Minardi
2002 CR-4 V10 3.0 Jaguar 0
CR-3 V10 3.0 Arrows
2003 CR-5 V10 3.0 Jaguar 1
  • Jordan engines use Ford name
  • Giancarlo Fisichella (Jordan) takes Cosworth's most recent Grand Prix victory, at Interlagos
RS1 V10 3.0 Jordan
CR-3 V10 3.0 Minardi
2004 CR-6 V10 3.0 Jaguar 0
  • Jordan engines use Ford name
RS2 V10 3.0 Jordan
CR-3L V10 3.0 Minardi
2005 TJ2005 V10 3.0 Red Bull, Minardi 0
  • Minardi used the CK2004 (CR-3L) engine during the first 3 races of the season where the team used the old PS04B chassis.
2006 CA2006 V8 2.4 Williams 0
  • Toro Rosso V10s rev-limited
TJ2005 V10 3.0 Toro Rosso
2007 – 2009: Cosworth did not supply any engines in Formula One.
2010 CA2010 V8 2.4 Williams, Lotus, HRT, Virgin 0
2011 CA2011 V8 2.4 Williams, HRT, Virgin 0
2012 CA2011 V8 2.4 Marusia, Caterham 0
2013 CA2011 V8 2.4 Marusia 0

2014: Cosworth did not supply any engines in Formula One.

 

 

 

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Books to read


Some useful links:

Technical
- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

Autosport
 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

James Allen on F1
- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

Joe Saward blog
- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

Vital F1
 - vitalf1.com/ is another great site for Motor Sports fan’s like me. Site is relatively new, but great fun, with great discussion forum, Formula 1 news and forum.

 GP update
- f1.gpupdate.net, Site with fresh news from Formula 1

Planet F1
 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

Gurney flap
 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4mula1
-
4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950

Racecar engineering
-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

FIA
 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

Wikipedia
 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

Sutton Images

grandprix photo

Carbibles
 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

Dare To Be Different
- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.