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Administrative Forces in Formula 1
and autosport

Formula One refers to the company, not to the sport itself
Formula 1 (numerical) refers to thevsport

Formula One Group

The Formula One Group is a group of companies responsible for the promotion of the FIA Formula One World Championship and exploitation of the sport's commercial rights. The Group is owned ultimately by Delta Topco, a Jersey-based company owned by CVC Capital Partners' funds (approximately 70%) and JPMorgan (approximately 20%). Bernie Ecclestone's family trust owns the remainder apart from small shares held by financial advisers and Ecclestone himself.
"Formula One Group" strictly refers to Formula One Management, Formula One Administration and Formula One Licensing BV, which are subsidiaries of the Formula One Holdings holding company. However Delta Topco owns other Formula One businesses which are referred to in the same way. Delta Topco Limited is now the holding company of the Formula One group. Delta Topco have also other arms of the business. Delta's parent company is called Alpha Topco and it is also the parent company of a string of businesses which use other letters from the Greek alphabet: Beta, Gamma, Epsilon and Omega. Beta, Gamma, Epsilon and Omega divisions include the revenues from Allsport Management, GP2 and GP3. Allsport Management looks after F1′s trackside signage, VIP hospitality and official supplier programmes and so there are significant revenues from these which the team do not get a share from.
The Formula One Group companies are subsidiaries of Formula One Holdings (FOH), itself a subsidiary of SLEC Holdings (SLavica ECclestone, Bernie's ex wife). As of September 2007 the board of FOH consisted of Donald Mackenzie, Nicholas James Clarry, Sacha Jane Woodward Hill, Bernie Ecclestone and Duncan Llowarch. In May 2012 the board of the Formula One group has voted to promote Nestle’s Peter Brabeck-Letmathe to the role of chairman, as part of its regruping as it aims for a stock exchange flotation in Singapore.

The F1 Group, which owns FOM, has turnover of $1.6bn which is 160 million times more than the fee paid to the FIA. The explanation for the low charge was that Ecclestone needed all the money he could get to fund F1's pay-TV drive and the governing body would reap the benefits when the rights returned to it in 2010.

During 2012, one alarming statistic floated out. F1's entire global TV rights income is about the same as that of the Turkish football Premier League - in the region of $490m. Most are astonished to hear that, but it seems as if it's accurate, as far as these figures can be accurately assessed. Which raises questions about whether the sport is being marketed and promoted as effectively as it might be.

GP2 racing series, basically a feeding series for Formula 1, is a private enterprise and as is owned by the Formula One group, which decides on what goes on the F1 programme at each event. GP2 itself is wildly expensive and after the first few cars the quality of drivers tails off very quickly. It survives because TV coverage of it is bundled with the F1 so TV companies have to agree to show it. But the budgets mean that only the wealthy or the well-connected can compete. The margins in GP2 are not good and in recent months we have seen Super Nova Racing disappear because of the costs involved. Some of the bigger sponsors such as Red Bull have nonetheless abandoned the GP2 championship and now they send their drivers through the Renault World Series to get them ready for F1. That trend will likely continue unless GP2 brings down its costs.

 

Umbrella Agreement

In 2001 the F1 Group paid $313.6m for the rights to host the 'FIA Formula One World Championship' for 100 years from 2011. The contract which grants the rights is not as well-known as the Concorde but is still important and is called the "Umbrella Agreement". It grants the F1 Group the rights to F1 which in turn enables Ecclestone to do deals with circuits and television stations to allow the races to go ahead and be seen.
It is not known what is in these confidential agreements, but the prospectus of the aborted Formula One flotation included a summary of "key contracts" which said that Formula One "must attempt to procure that at least 16 cars participate in the World Championship" and that an event "may be cancelled" if fewer than 12 cars are available for it.

 

CVC Capital
Formula 1 Commercial Rights Holder

CVCCVC is the U.K.-based private equity firm which owns the majority of F1's commercial rights-holder. At March 2006 CVC bought its stake in the sport. To understand how CVC come to that, we need to look back.

At the time, 25% of F1 was owned by the family trust of its chief executive Bernie Ecclestone with the remaining 75% in the hands of three banks - Germany's BayernLB and two US banks, JP Morgan and Lehman Brothers - which never intended to become shareholders in the sport. The banks ended up with their stake in F1 after taking it over from previous owner, German media group Kirch, when it defaulted on a $1.6bn loan they had given it to buy the shares. The banks wanted to sell F1 to get the money back from the loan they gave to Kirch but this was far from straightforward.
After around two decades without an increase in the share of the spoils they get from F1, six manufacturers which owned teams threatened to start a rival series unless they got more money from the sport. They had the ideal window to do this as the Concorde Agreement, the teams' contract to race in F1, was due to expire at the end of 2007. This made the banks' F1 shares a tough to sell and as every day got closer to the end of 2007 the value of their stake decreased. CVC saw an opportunity to make money by signing a new deal with the teams and building up F1. It paid $1.2bn for the banks' 75% stake and although they didn't get back all the money from their loan, CVC's offer was the best on the table.
The reason that private equity companies get their name is that they use money from high net worth people, pension funds and businesses (the private sector) to buy shares (equity) in businesses which they usually sell after several years for a profit. Private equity companies put investors' money into funds which are effectively large bank accounts with specific terms. The terms of the funds (known in the trade as 'limited partnerships') are set out in a memorandum to investors and this governs everything from how the money will be invested to the return which is expected to be made.
The CVC Fund which bought F1 is known as Fund IV, because it was the company's fourth major investment fund. The investors in Fund IV provided a total of $7.3bn and $1bn of this was used in the acquisition of F1. This put in motion the events which ultimately led to the recent rumours about the flotation.
The reason for this is that the memorandum for Fund IV states that the partnership's term is ten years from when it is fully-funded which was in 2005. This term can be extended for up to three years with the consent of the majority of the investors and the purpose of this is to allow the partnership to liquidate and dissolve any investments remaining then. It gives the investors a window of 13 years to get their return and suggests that CVC may have to exit its F1 investment by 2018. This may not be the only driving force behind a flotation.

While the banks' 75% stake in F1 cost $1.2bn, the total cost of the sport came to much more than that. CVC paid $500m for the 25% owned by Ecclestone's trust and in 2006 it spent an estimated $300m on buying F1's corporate hospitality and trackside advertising divisions. This move was crucial to the success of CVC's strategy since it brought all of F1's money-making divisions under one roof for the first time and the teams were then offered a 50% share in the sport's total profit. This doubled the teams' take and just two months after CVC bought into F1 they signed a new draft of the Concorde Agreement from 2008 to the end of year 2012.
The total cost of buying F1 came to $2bn and CVC is also understood to have cleared a $321m loan taken out in 2001 to buy the 100 year rights to the sport. As Fund IV only invested $1bn this left nearly $1.4bn which was covered by debt. The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) provided a loan of $1.1bn with the remaining $300m coming from CVC's co-owners in F1 - advisory firm Churchill Capital, Ecclestone's family trust and the two US banks JP Morgan and Lehman Brothers which had so much faith in the future of F1 that they reinvested in it. The wisdom of this decision soon became very clear.
It is worth noting that until recently the share holdings in Delta Topco Ltd (Jersey) were as follows:

The rest is owned by employees or directors as follows:

In June 2012 CVC has sold a $500M stake in the sport just days after "turmoil in global stock markets prompted it to delay taking the company public, and with this move they cut its stake to around 35.5 per cent from previous 63 per cent. The deals have helped to remove the pressure on CVC when they try to float the business on the Singapore Stock Exchange this summer in a $3 billion listing. The plans are on hold for now. CVC sold a 21% stake earlier this year to U.S. fund manager Waddell & Reed and other two cornerstone investors; BlackRock and Norges Bank Investment Management, all three regarded as blue chip funds by the City. With this Waddell & Reed has increased its stake in F1 to 20.9% in a deal valuing its parent company at more than $9.1B.

 

Formula One Licensing BV

Formula One Licensing BV owns the Formula One trademarks; the F1 logo, "Formula 1", "Formula One", "F1" and the "Sweeping Curves device" shown before Grands Prix.


Formula One Management

Formula One Management Ltd. or FOM controls the media distribution and promotion of content regarding Formula One. The Formula One website content is managed by Formula One Management. Financially, FOM provides partial investment for tracks and teams in order to establish Formula One where its popularity may not be well established. FOM maintains the commercial rights to the team names and all media content regarding Formula One. Coordination of planning and racing events are done with the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile or FIA. In recent years, FOM has asserted its ownership of copyrighted video footage of Formula One by having infringing material removed from internet sites as YouTube.
The president of FOM is Bernie Ecclestone who has presided over the company since it has existed in its current form and Mr. Donald McKenzie is the major shareholder of FOM. Today the owner of FOM is a financial company, CVC.

 

Formula One Administration (FOA)FOA F1 sweeping curves

The FOA is an organization that takes care of Formula 1's economic aspects (broadcasting rights, prize money, marketing, etc.) and holds the commercial rights to Formula One. These rights are granted to FOA by the FIA under the terms of the Concorde Agreement and are managed by Formula One Management. Formula One Administration Limited provides information relating to Formula One. It offers Formula One news, e-mail alerts, and feeds, as well as information relating to Formula One races, results, and teams and drivers. The company also operates an online store selling T-shirts, polo shirts, jackets and tracksuits, headwear, footwear, gifts and accessories, watches and other Formula One memorabilia.
In its annual accounts filed with Companies House, FOA reported turnover of $750 million and pre-tax profits of $447 million (up from $215m in 2003 and $127m in 2002). This has allowed the company to slash its debts by $347 million to $121 million.
The head of the FOA is Bernard (Bernie) Ecclestone from Great Britain. The FOA developed out of the FOCA, a manufacturers' association founded in 1971.

 

Concorde Agreement

The Concorde Agreement is a tripartite contract that binds the teams, the FIA and Formula One's commercial rights holders (CVC Capital) together and dictates the split of the sport's revenues. The FIA is led by Jean Todt. The Formula One group is led by Bernie Ecclestone and the teams are led by no-one.
This confidential commercial contract has existed in various forms since 1981 when the first such structure was put in place. It has changed a great deal since then but there have been successive Concorde Agreements in 1987, 1992, 1997, 1998 and 2009. The aim is to have another to cover the period 2013 – 2020. This agreement is known as the Concorde Agreement since it was signed in the headquarters of F1's governing body the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) on the Place de la Concorde in Paris. In 2009 the teams negotiated the current Concorde Agreement under the collective umbrella of the Formula One Teams' Association (FOTA), with only minor changes.

Modern day F1 literally wouldn't exist if it wasn't for the Concorde Agreement. Prior to it being signed F1 races ran as ad hoc, almost amateur, events. Each team made separate deals with each event promoter and television coverage was sporadic since races could be cancelled at the last moment if there were not enough cars to fill the grid. F1's boss Bernie Ecclestone saw that the big money would come from TV so he convinced the teams to sign a contract committing them to race. This agreement specifies the rights and obligations of the teams and the FIA. It also calls for unanimity for important decisions. It is Formula One holy of holies, the secret kept by scores of people for a quarter of a century. It is a contract which binds the F1 teams, the FIA, and the entity, run by Bernie Ecclestone, which holds the sport's commercial rights through 2097.

Ecclestone took the contract to TV companies who could then guarantee coverage. His company Formula One Promotions and Administration (FOPA) negotiated the deals on behalf of the teams and took a share of the proceeds with the remainder going to the teams and the FIA. This money split has changed several times since 1981 and it is always at the heart of the negotiations over a new version of the contract.

There have in fact been seven separate Concorde Agreements, all of whose terms were kept strictly secret: the first in 1981, others followed in 1987, 1992, 1997, 1998, 2009 and the current agreement in 2013 (2013 Memoranda of Understanding - MoU - that are currently sitting in for a Concorde Agreement).
However, the secrecy was broken by noted racing journalist Forrest Bond when the 120+ page 1997 Concorde Agreement was published at the end of 2005 by RaceFax.

First page of 1997 Concorde agreement:

Contents: Page:

1. Championship rights 2
2. Definitions 2
3. Commercial Agreement 3
4. Grant of Rights 3
5. Undertaking 4
6. F1 Commission 4
7. F1 Technical Working Group 11
8. Technical and Sporting Regulations 15
9. Promoters and Organisers 18
10. Entries 19
11. Calendar 20
12. Passes 21
13. Driver Contract Recognition Agreement 22
14. Constructors 22
15. Interpretation 22
16. Confidentiality 23
17. Governing, Law, Invalidity, Arbitration 24
18. Notices 24
19. Term 24
20. Authority of Signatories 25

The success on the race track translates into more prize money from the Formula One group, although exactly how this works is something of a mystery which is controlled by a document called Schedule 10 of the Concorde Agreement. There is a prize fund, which consists of half the EBITDA of the Formula One group. It is believed that from this is deducted a percentage (believed to be 2.5 percent) which goes directly to Ferrari, in recognition of the team’s historical importance to the sport. The rest is then divided in half and the first tranche is split between the teams based on their historical achievements. There are three different categories of team and each category receives a different share.
The other tranche is divided up on the basis of results, with the winning team picking up around 20 percent of the prize fund. More about prize fund later on the page.

 

Regulations

The FIA draws up the sporting and technical regulations for Formula 1.
Sporting Regulations, which currently stands at 39 pages and covers the way a race weekend runs, which licence you need, start procedure and possible sanctions should rules be broken.
The second, and lengthier tome, is the technical regulations, 72 pages, spelling out in minute detail every rule that covers the construction of an F1 car. The technical regulations primarily aim at two important things: speed should be controlled in the interest of safety, while simultaneously retaining the ongoing technical development so critical to the nature of Formula 1. In addition, safety is to be guaranteed in the case of an accident. To achieve these aims, the following factors have been limited: engine capacity, fuel composition, tire size, tire contact surface, minimum weight and width of the cars. The sporting regulations primarily control the procedure of a grand prix weekend. Should you want to know more, the full regulations can be downloaded from the FIA website.

 

Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile

FIA logo

The FIA (International Automobile Federation) draws up the technical and racing regulations for Formula 1. It is based in Geneva. The president of the leading international racing authority is Jean Todt from France. The FIA was founded in 1904., 46 years before the first championship F1 race was held and around the time that the world's first motor races were taking place. Given that road cars had only gone into production at the end of the 1800s there was a need for an organization to govern not only motorsport but also the emerging motoring industry and hence the FIA was born. FIA is a non-profit association that represent the interest of motoring organizations and motor car users around the word.
FIA is unlike most other sports governing bodies. The federation represents 227 national motorsport and motoring organizations from 132 countries including the world's biggest group, the American Automobile Association (AAA). This alone has over 50m members and, in total, FIA clubs represent well over 100.000.000 motorists and their families.
FIA administration responsibility is as follow: America’s Nick Craw is President of the FIA Senate, Britain’s Graham Stoker is Deputy President for Sport and New Zealand’s Brian Gibbons is Deputy President for the Mobility side.

 

FIA World Motor Sport Council

The World Motor Sport Council is the most powerful body of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). Its membership is chosen by the FIA General Assembly, which contains representatives from national automobile clubs (ASNs) throughout the world. It is one of two FIA World Councils; the other deals with matters such as tourism. It is also responsible for the promotion of safety in worldwide motorsport , the encouragement of standardized regulations, and the promotion of motorsport in new markets, including developing countries.
The spread of activities encouraged and controlled by the FIA World Motor Sport Council is enormous and is not limited to the FIA Formula One World Championship, the FIA World Rally Championship, the FIA GT Championship or Formula 3000. Through its national member clubs the FIA's involvement extends to the millions of amateurs and professionals who enjoy motor sport in all of its variety.
The World Motor Sport Council meets three or four times a year to consider proposals from specialist FIA Commissions. It has a current membership of 26, including FIA President Jean Todt and Formula One commercial rights owner Bernie Ecclestone.

 

List of members (2005-2009 term)

Position: Member:
President France flegJean Todt
Deputy-President United Kingdom flagGraham Stoker
Vice-President Monaco flagMichel Boeri
Vice-President Italy flagHugo Mersan
Vice-President Spain flagCarlos Gracia Fuertes
Vice-President Mexico flagJosé Abed
Vice-President United Arab Emirates flagNasser Khalifa Al-Atya
Vice-President Australia flagMorrie Chandler
Vice-President Tanzanija flagSurinder Thatthi

 

 

Country Representing:

Member:

Bahrain flagBahrain Sheikh Abdulla Bin Isa Alkhalifa
Australia flagAustralia Garry Connelly
flag of FranceFrance Nicolas Deschaux
Croatia flagCroatia Zrinko Gregurek
China flagChina Wan Heping
Rusia flagRussia Victor Kiryanov
India flagIndia Vijay Mallya
Paraguay flagParaguay Hugo R. Mersan
Czech Republic flagCzech Republic Radovan Novak
Sweden flagSweden Lars Österlind
Venezuela flagVenezuela Vicenzo Spano
Flag of BrazilBrazil Cleyton Pinteiro
Flag of ItalyItaly Angelo Sticchi Damiani
Flag of GermanyGermany Hermann Tomczyck
Flag of JapanJapan Yoshiki Hiyama
Singapore flagSingapore Teng Lip Tan

 

FIA International Court of Appeal

The FIA International Court of Appeal is the final appeal tribunal for international motor sport. It resolves disputes brought before it by any of motorsport's National Sporting Authorities world-wide, or by the President of the FIA. It can also settle non-sporting disputes brought by national motoring organizations affiliated to the FIA.
The FIA's International Court of Appeal is composed of professional judges, and it's 18 members are appointed for a three-year term. In order for the court to make a legally binding decision, the presence of at least three judges is required, none of which may be of the same nationality as the parties involved. A Formula 1 team that is unwilling to accept a decision by the racing commissioners can appeal to the FIA's International Court of Appeal. In this case, a declaration of intent must be submitted within an hour of the decision. The FIA, too, can send a decision by the commissioners to the Court of Appeal. List of members for year 2010 can be find here.

 

International Tribunal (IT)

The 2010 FIA General Assembly adopted a new judicial system which includes an International Tribunal (IT) exercising the FIA’s disciplinary powers in the first instance (for cases not dealt with by the Stewards of the Meeting). Decisions taken by the IT can be appealed before the International Court of Appeal (ICA).
On 9 December 2011, the FIA General Assembly elected 12 judges to the International Tribunal.
The FIA statutes state: "The IT hears cases that have been submitted to it."... "The IT operates totally independently from the other bodies of the FIA and the members of the FIA."..."It applies and interprets the present Rules with the aim of enforcing the Statutes and Regulations of the FIA, including the International Sporting Code."

The current president of the IT is Briton Edwin Glasgow, with the vice-president Laurent Anselmi coming from Monaco. One of the key elements of the IT - a 12-man panel - is that it is completely separate from the governing body.
Should the FIA decide that an IT hearing is required, then there is a strict process that has to be followed. According to the FIA statutes, the president will appoint a panel made up of at least three members - one of whom will be designated 'the President of the Hearing'. To ensure independence, no members of the judging panel will be allowed to be the same nationality as one of the main parties of the case.
Both defence and other interested parties will be asked to submit written evidence before the hearing - and the final proceedings will be open to the media – unless there are exceptional circumstances. The prosecuted party will be given at least 15 days to submit their observations on the charges; and the prosecuting body will be given a further 15 days to reply. There will then be a further 15 days between the reply by the prosecuting body and the hearing taking place.
However, there are allowances – especially relating to sporting matters – which mean the process can be fast-tracked. The statutes state: "The President of the Hearing may at any time decide to reduce or extend the time limits of proceedings."
The IT statutes make it clear: "Unless stated otherwise, offences or infringements are punishable, whether they were committed intentionally or negligently." If the IT decides that there has been a breach of the rules, then the judging panel will hand out whatever punishment it thinks is appropriate. The IT's punishments are limited to fines, bans or the alternative sanctions laid out in the International Sporting Code (ISC). The ISC says available sanctions are listed in the order of severity: reprimand, fines, obligation to accomplish some work of public interest, time penalty, exclusion, suspension or disqualification.

Full membership list of the International Tribunal
Biographies of the judges

 

Formula One Commission

Before 2008, this commission consisted of representatives from the all teams, race organizers, engine manufacturers, sponsors, tire manufacturers and of course the FIA.
From 2008, just six of the 12 Formula One teams have voting rights as part of the Formula One Commission, the FIA announced. The move, which leaves big names such as McLaren without a vote, is part of an overhaul designed to simplify major decision making within the sport.

The Formula One Commission is responsible for approving any changes to the sporting and technical regulations proposed by the Sporting and Technical Working Groups (both of which include senior members from all teams), and then putting them forward to the FIA's World Motor Sport Council for ratification.

In the past, all of the teams have had voting rights, along with engine suppliers, tire manufacturers, race promoters, key sponsors. However, following the announced changes, just six teams - each from a different country - will have a say, along with five race promoters, plus a representative each from Formula One racing's commercial rights holder and the FIA.

The full list of those elected on to the 2008 Commission following a vote of the FIA World Motor Sport Council is as follows:

Teams:
Austria - Red Bull Racing
France - Renault
Germany - BMW Sauber
Italy - Ferrari
Japan - Honda
United Kingdom - Williams

Race promoters:
Australian Grand Prix
Brazilian Grand Prix
Hungarian Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix
Spanish Grand Prix

 

Paddock Club

The Paddock Club is Formula One's corporate hospitality organization, which provides a luxury area for VIP's and sponsors for the Grand Prix weekend, and also gives access to teams and drivers and tours of the pits.  Paddock Club was actually run by Allsport Management (owned by Paddy McNally). In 2006 Paddy then sold Allsport (and the related Allsopp Parker & Marsh companies) to CVC through Delta Topco, meaning that the sport's complete revenues are controlled by the Formula One Group. Circuit owners don't see a penny of it.
At the Formula One Paddock Club everything is created around VIP guests. From a prime location they can watch the race unfold with all the drama that Formula One offers on and off track. With private air-conditioned lounges, super large TV screens and first rate balconies with exceptional views of the race action, a Formula One Paddock Club ticket is the ultimate way to enjoy a Grand Prix race.

 

Formula One Constructors Association (FOCA)

Formula One Constructors' Association (FOCA) is organization of the constructors who design and build the cars that race in the FIA Formula One World Championship. It evolved from the earlier Formula 1 Constructors Association F1CA; the name was changed due to unfortunate connotations in Italian language and came to be dominated by Bernie Ecclestone and Max Mosley (originally a co-founders of March Engineering F1 Team). Frank Williams, Colin Chapman, Teddy Mayer, Ken Tyrrell were also members. FOCA served to represent the interests of their privately owned teams - usually against the race organizers and later against the manufacturer-owned or supported teams such as Ferrari, Marta and Alfa Romeo. Ecclestone became the organization's chief executive in 1978, with Mosley taking on the role of legal advisor.
In the early 1980s, the organization fell out with the sport's governing body - the FISA. The eventual resolution of this conflict saw Ecclestone take a more significant role in the running of the sport with the formation of FOA (Formula One Administration).

 

Formula One Teams Association (FOTA)(disbaned 28 of February 2014)FOTA logo

The Formula One Teams Association (FOTA) is a new group of Formula One teams. FOTA was formed in Monza in September 2008 to give the teams a single voice in issues affecting the future of the sport and dealings with the FIA and Bernie Ecclestone’s organization. The teams met before in Maranello on 29 July 2008, and agreed to form FOTA, so originally July 2008 but September was the first official day of FOTA. Then teams agree in October for a first package of measures in Shanghai. This organization gives the teams a united voice in their discussions with the FIA and The Formula One Group regarding the future of Formula One and the teams. FOTA has achieved some useful things in its time, mostly on the cost savings side; like the original Resource Restriction Agreement in 2008, the cutting back of testing, reduction in wind tunnel time, the rationalization of engine prices to keep small teams in the game.

However, mounting unease during 2010 and 2011 about the RRA and spendings of some teams (RedBull, Mercedes, ...), December 2. 2011, Ferrari and Red Bull quit the Formula One Teams Association over the ‘stalemate’ in the organisation, an that leaves questions about whether the institution will survive. It is interesting that the two teams have left at the same time. There was a lack of trust within FOTA about RRA, which has spurred this decision.
Both Ferrari boss Stefano Domenicali and Red Bull Racing boss Christian Horner asked recently if FOTA could not agree a new RRA, what was the point of having the organisation? That said, Ferrari retains close links with Sauber, which is still part of FOTA and Toro Rosso is part of the Red Bull empire.

The Formula 1 teams seem to be completely incapable of working together over a long period of time to create and maintain a sensible power base in order to bargain collectively with the Formula One group and the FIA. 28 of February 2014, Oliver Weingarten, FOTA's secretary general, told Autosport: "I can confirm that FOTA has been disbanded, as a result of its members having re-evaluated their requirements in the face of a changing political and commercial landscape in Formula 1."

The teams worked towards increasing the the stability, sustainability and show of Formula 1 and did some useful work, notably talking to the fans – a radical idea in the self-serving world of F1. In the end, however, in December 2011, faced with disputes over the Resource Restriction Agreement, Christian Horner's Red Bull team shattered the unity of FOTA by making their own deal with Bernie under a new Concorde Agreement, quitting FOTA and taking Torro Rosso team with him.
Luca Montezemolo had allowed Ferrari to be picked off first in commercial negotiations with Bernie in the past, but this time round he had maintained unity with FOTA. Montezemolo had been instrumental in setting up FOTA and was its first chairman. But in the face of Ferrari team coming in and getting special treatment, Montezemolo reverted to his natural instinct, quitting FOTA and making his own preferential deal with Bernie, and taking Sauber with him.
So with Red Bull, Toro Rosso, Ferrari and Sauber now out, FOTA's negotiating position was severely compromised. Ferrari and Red Bull did their own deal with the Formula One group, leaving the other teams to scramble for whatever deals they could get. FOTA was seriously damaged but it was kept alive by the enthusiasm of Martin Whitmarsh and Ros Brown to build a better Formula 1. Once Whitmarsh was out of the way at McLaren and Ros from Mercedes, however, there was no-one willing or able to take the lead.
Anf finaly, at February 28th 2014, FOTA has been disbanded. Oliver Weingarten, FOTA's secretary general, said: "I can confirm that FOTA has been disbanded, as a result of its members having re-evaluated their requirements in the face of a changing political and commercial landscape in Formula 1." Cost concerns, result of its declining relevance and a lack of agreement with the teams outside FOTA – Red Bull, Ferrari, Toro Rosso and Sauber – sealed the association’s widely predicted demise.

 

Engine Homologation

Engine homologation is basically another word for “certification” or “accreditation” and means that the engines are given official approval by the FIA. This is achieved by the engine manufacturers have to surrender a sample power unit, comprising an engine, battery, motor generator units, in a box together with a memory disc containing all the drawings of the power unit components to the federation to be a yardstick for the rest of the year. This is then sealed by the FIA and taken away. All additional units used this year must be the same specification. The FIA can carry out checks at any time to ensure that the engines are the same. At any stage of the season they can take out the unit and the drawings and request any engine from the race pool of any team and compare it with what is in the box.

From 28. February 2014 power unit consists out of 6 parts or components: The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), the Electronics Control (EC), the Motor Generator Unit-Kinetic (MGU-K), the Motor Generator Unit-Heat (MGU-H), The Turbo Charger (TC) and The Battery and all will classified as a power unit and development will froze.
However Appendix 4 of the 2014 FIA SPORTING REGULATIONS allows modifications after that date for "reliability, safety or cost-saving reasons".

If a manufacturer has a reliability problem, he can apply to the FIA to make some changes. This can also be done on cost grounds, to avoid a situation where a greedy supplier starts charging double for a component, knowing that it’s part of what is sealed in the FIA box.
If there is a reliability issue, the manufacturer writes to the FIA highlighting the problem and specifying the fix it would like to carry out. It has to prove that this fix does not enhance the performance. The FIA considers it and if satisfied, writes to the other manufacturers requesting their permission for the change. The other manufacturers have five days to reply. If one of the power trains is performing significantly worse than the others, it is clearly not in the interests of the sport so some common sense needs to be applied. The rule makers looked at this and pre-empted it in some ways; they decided that all manufacturers should be allowed to make a small number of performance upgrades after one year, so the engines will be re-homologated at the same time next year.

The issue here is that once a power unit is used during a race weekend, the changes, being upgrades or reliability updates, are locked in. Until the car got fired up in the garage, the team actually did not spend tokens at all and could theoretically have kept updating its engine until the point the car is fired up. So, ones fired, a particular power unit with his 6 components will be locked in its spec, meaning that from that point forward, you are not allowed to replace its core parts whatsoever.

To know more about engine homologation and development in this area after 2014, you can read my article about 2014 Formula 1 Power Unit and changes in FIA Sporting Regulations. there you can also learn about "TOKEN" system which allow manufacturers to update power units on controlled manner.

Engine token (partially from JOEBLOGSF1)

The subject of engine tokens in F1 is one that gets some folks very excited and others hopelessly confused. What is an engine token and why does it matter? A token is, in effect, the right to change a specific part of an engine.
First, some background. Primarily, this was intended to prevent the costs from escalating and Formula 1 becoming a manufacturer spending war. From the begining, the idea was that the power unit specification would be frozen in specification for its existence, as was the case with the V8's. Unlike the V8's, however, the power units could be upgraded and re-homologated annually. The scope of those updates was limited by a system of tokens, the whole power unit was broken down into sub system and each subsystem was given a value in tokens. 

The FIA has broken down the engines into components or “families of functions”, with each being given a level of importance (Category 1, 2 or 3). The token value of the complete power unit is 66 tokens, made up of the sum of these ranked items. The number of components that can be changed in a season is limited, to keep down costs, and the limit was supposed to reduce year by year. A poorly written rule (Ferrari noticed this first at the end of 2014 season) allowed the teams to change this so they could “spend” their tokens at any time during the year, thus making development possible, rather than having everything frozen for 12 months at a time.
Teams are allowed to “spend” a decreasing number of points from year to year, giving them the opportunity to make some changes with a view to improving their engines without allowing them to make radical overhauls from year to year. Additionally each year some parts of the power unit would be fixed restricting the scope of what could be updated. In 2016, for example, manufacturers could not change the design of the crankcase, valve drive, cam covers, crankshaft, air valve system, and ancillaries drive. Beyond that, the only thing that could be changed in theory were for reasons of cost reliability or safety.
This year (2014) the number of tokens that could be used was 32. 25 was planned for next (2015) season but engine manufacturers have agreed with the FIA that for the 2015 and 2016 the number will remain at 32 and development can continue to be constant. In theory this means that the level of performance of the engines will get closer, but there is a danger that it might also allow Mercedes to increase its advantage.
Looked at this points as a percentage, 8% of the power unit's total weight in components have been frozen in 2015, again 8% in 2016.
For 2017 and beyond, all manufacturer agree to abandon token system in an attempt to reduce the performance gap between different manufacturers. All development into the key areas of efficiency will continue in parallel with the racing programmes. This means that any manufacturer has the possibility to make significant gains from year to year. No one is locked into a situation where they cannot introduce a good idea because they are restricted.
It’s good news for Honda and Renault, who have the most ground to make up and it means that the next two seasons could lead to less predictable patterns as manufacturers can potentially make big steps. I don't know about money savings! More than likely, it will come down to how much a manufacturer is willing to spend.

Cost of Formula 1

Formula 1 has been driven by money since its early days. Money is needed to sign the best drivers and best technicians and to carry out intensive development programme ceaselessly throughout the year. The current Formula 1 teams are all owned by people who can afford to own them. In the interim they are investing as little as they possibly can. Sport’s costs before and during 2015 are astonishing, with the small teams spending more than $1 million a week and the big teams spending that or bigger amount every day. So big headlines claiming that a team that owes a million is in trouble are simply naive. Most, if not all of the F1 teams have much the same amount of unpaid bills at any one time.
Team budget estimations for 2015, revealed by Italian publication "Autosprint" estimates that Red Bull Racing is the best funded team on the grid with €468 million, followed by Mercedes and McLaren Honda. Ferrari is forth, with behind them a big difference in available money. The list of budgets shows how huge is the gap between the first four teams and the rest of the grid.
First four have a similar budget but different sources of income. Red Bull and Ferrari massively build on sponsors, while Mercedes and McLaren-Honda have a significant income from partners. Ferrari also benefits from its extra share of income from Formula 1 commercial rights holder.

Team Total Sponsors Partners FOM
Red Bull Racing 468.7 266.0 35.7 167.0
Mercedes AMG 467.4 122.0 212.4 133.0
McLaren Honda 465.0 144.5 216.5 104.0
Ferrari 418.0 208.5 34.5 175.0
Williams 186.4 52.5 22.9 111.0
Lotus F1 139.1 69.5 13.6 56.0
Toro Rosso 137.4 68.0 9.4 60.0
Force India 129.7 49.5 12.2 68.0
Sauber 103.2 44.0 9.25 50.0
Manor 83.0 0.5 32.5 50.0


A report on Autosport's website revealed the predicted split of Formula One Management's revenues between the ten teams competing in F1 last year, once again exposing the sport's uneven playing field for its 2015 performance, so payments for 2016 revealed:

Formula 1 team payments for 2016

Despite finishing second, Ferrari came out on top in the earning stakes and is set to receive a total of $190 million once its championship prize money, constructors' championship bonus and long standing team bonus are factored in. As a result, the Italian team will receive more money than champions Mercedes, which is set to earn $171 million.Williams, which finished third in last year's championship, receives just $87 million, which is $57 million less than Red Bull, who finished one place behind it in the title race. The skewed distribution of revenues is also underlined by McLaren, which is set to receive $82 million despite finishing ninth in the constructors' standings. As a result, McLaren receives more money than four of the teams it finished behind in last year's championship, with Force India earning $67 million, Renault (the old Lotus team) earning $64 million, Toro Rosso earning $57 million and Sauber earning $53 million. Manor, which finished last in 2015, earns $47 million. The total prize money across all ten teams is $965 million.

RRA - Resource Restriction Agreement

Resource Restriction Agreement was set up by FOTA teams to police spending as many found that the costs of competing in the sport were out of control. RRA is not part of FIA rules or Sporting Regulations, but kind of internal gentleman’s agreement between the teams, but it’s also important to remember that the RRA is a legally binding agreement which runs to at least 2012, or perhaps even 2017 - depending on whom you believe, and which version of the document you are talking about. With help of RRA, Formula 1 managed to keep the cost of competition on reasonable levels, and attract three new teams. Without RRA spending war will erupt in F1 all over again at a time when the world is facing a financial crisis.
Most teams don’t have a large enough budget to be affected by the RRA, but it does place a ceiling above the big teams and stops them from engaging in a spending arms race which would skew the competitive balance of the sport and ultimately could lead to the failure of several medium and small teams who would be unable to compete.
The Formula One Teams Association (FOTA) hit a major stumbling block when the teams failed to find consensus over the Resource Restriction Agreement. December 2. 2011, Ferrari, Red Bull Racing, Sauber and Scuderia Toro Rosso have decided to withdraw from the FOTA on the back of the ongoing row over the RRA. There was a lack of trust within FOTA about RRA, which has spurred this decision. Ferrari and Red Bull quit the Formula One Teams Association over the ‘stalemate’ in the organ is at ion, an that leaves questions about whether the institution will survive.

The financial realities do not change. The big teams remain unwilling to accept budget caps, the small teams struggle. They know that there is little that can done beyond surviving until either the big teams relent and accept a budget cap;, or the FIA forces it on them, and/or the sport undergoes a revolution which ends the current structure in which half of the money generated by the sport goes to financiers who put nothing into the sport and are simply milking the cow until someone stops them

 

F1 2015 driver salaries

The list of Formula 1 salaries for year 2015 has been published by "Business Book GP" and reported by Spanish newspaper "El Mundo Deportivo".

The full list is below:

2015 Drivers Salaries: 

1. Fernando Alonso McLaren-Honda €35m 
2. Sebastian Vettel Ferrari €28m 
3. Lewis Hamilton Mercedes €25m 
4. Kimi Raikkonen Ferrari €18m 
5. Nico Rosberg Mercedes €13.5m 
6. Jenson Button McLaren-Honda €10m 
7. Felipe Massa Williams €4m 
8. Nico Hulkenberg Force India F1 €4m 
8. Sergio Perez Force India F1 €4m 
8.  Romain Grosjean Lotus F1 Team €4m 
8. Pastor Maldonado Lotus F1 Team €4m 
12. Valtteri Bottas Williams €2m 
13. Daniel Ricciardo Red Bull Racing €1.5m 
14. Daniil Kvyat Red Bull Racing €750,000 
15. Max Verstappen Scuderia Toro Rosso €250,000 
15. Carlos Sainz Scuderia Toro Rosso €250,000 
17. Felipe Nasr Sauber €200,000 
17. Marcus Ericsson Sauber €200,000 
19. Will Stevens Manor €150,000 
20. Roberto Merhi Manor €50,000 (covering expenses)

To compare to the 2014 salaries, click here 


Race hosting fees

Bernie Ecclestone, representing the Commercial Rights Holders, charges circuits for hosting a race. Tracks such as Silverstone and Monza, which have historical value, pay less than Bahrain or Russia, which don't. And Monaco pays nothing at all. There is the word that standard fee for a European race is around €20 million.
Race hosting fees vary from nothing for the Monaco Grand Prix (where grandstand seats cost in excess of £300/$450) to huge sums of $25m for F1 debutants or far east races. For Rusia, event organizers reportedly pay more than any other to host an Formula 1 race, £50 million has been mooted. Baku race in Azerbaijan is probably the biggest ever F1 race contract, with an annual fee in excess of $60 million. Some even think it could be $70 million. The deal is for five years (plus a 10 percent annual increase), meaning a deal worth at least $360 million to the sport, with an additional four years + one option that could increase that total to more than $750 million. Azerbaijan also has to pay the costs of erecting and dismantling the circuit each year (which will amount to more than $200 million over a 10-year period), so we are looking at an investment of $1 billion from the government. (Joe Saward, Notebook from the Land of Fire, June 21, 2016)
Why does Ecclestone demand such high fees? Partly because he want to preserve the stature of the event and to under-sell Formula 1 show. Partly because the sport's biggest shareholders and money suckers, to which Ecclestone answers, insist on it. For them, the sport is there only to make them money.
For some strange reason the Monaco Grand Prix has been afforded special historic status, while its older and more historic rivals pay for the right to host a world championship event. This despite the fact that the Monaco is the the richest F1 hosts country best able to pay the Formula One Group's hosting fees with GDP per capita of $153,177 (Monaco GPD per capita of $153,177, Germany $46,896, France $41,018 and Italy $35,811 (year 2015)). About historic event, France was the first country to play host to a motor race calling itself a grand prix, over 100 years ago. Italy was the second European nation to do the same, in 1921, while Germany joined in 1926. The first Monaco Grand Prix took place in 1929.

 

Formula 1 prize fund

(partly reproduced from F1 journalist Joe Saward blog article "How much money does Marussia gain from 2013?)

The fact that Marussia finished 10th in 2013, rather than 11th, is not perhaps as significant as some think it is.
The F1 prize fund is based on the amount of money that the sport generates in a year – and that changes from one year to the next. If one assumes that the prize fund is $700 million (we do not yet know for 2013) the structure is simple enough. There are three prize funds: known as Columns 1, 2 and 3.
Ferrari has a special deal which means that the Italian team takes a two and a half percent percentage of the prize money straight off the top. This is believed to be two and half percent, but may have increased, which means that it got at least $17.5 million in 2011, leaving the prize fund with $682.5 million. If there is a prize fund of $700 million (after the Ferrari payment $682.5 million), this will be divided into two equal payment schedules (which is known as Earnings Before Interest, Taxes Depreciation and Amortisation (EBITDA)), each worth $341.25 million: the Column 1 and Column 2 funds each being $350 million. Column 3 is paid directly by the Commercial Rights Holder.
Page 176 of the prospectus confirms that under the Team Agreements two additional percent will be shared out. However, only certain teams benefit from them. The first is "the greater of 7.5% of our Prize Fund EBITDA, and US$100 million (the 'CCB Fund')." The prospectus adds that "The CCB Fund shall be shared amongst the CCB Teams meaning each of the top three Teams determined primarily on Events won in the four seasons prior to this season."

The Column 1 money is divided equally amongst the top 10 teams on an equal basis: ie $35 million per team. However the top 10 is not established based on the results of a single season, but rather on the results in two of the three previous seasons. In other words, if Marussia is 10th again in 2014, it will be eligible for Column 1 money, but that is not currently the case. Thus Caterham, which was 10th in two of the last three seasons, will still be paid $35 million in Column 1 money for 2013.
The Column 2 fund is $350 million as well, but this divides up differently based on a scale of percentages, based on the results for 2013 alone. With the percentage scale being 19 percent for the Constructors’ champion, 16 percent for the second placed teams and then 13 percent, 11 percent, 10 percent, nine percent, seven percent, six percent and five percent, with four percent for the 10th placed team, the 11th gets zero percent. This means that the spread of payments to the teams ranges from $81 million to $14 million.
So in real terms, in 2013 Marussia will get $14 million of the Column 2 fund (four percent of $350 million).
However, there is also Column 3, which provides for a payment of $10 million to each team outside the top 10 but nonetheless competing in the World Championship. This means that Caterham has lost $14 million, but will be paid $10 million, so the overall loss as a result of finishing 11th is just $4 million. If the same thing happens again in 2014 it will be a lot more painful. If Marussia is 10th again it will qualify for Column 1 and thus will gain $35 million a year. Caterham will lose the same figure. Thus, Caterham needs to up its game and finish 10th to save the day…

Under the terms of the last Concorde Agreement that ran from 2009 to 2012, Ferrari got an additional 2.5% of F1's profits to itself before anyone else got a taste of anything, but according to page 176 of the prospectus, and the analysts' reports, this now comes to "the greater of an amount which is capped at 5% of our Prize Fund EBITDA". In 2011, the F1 Group's underlying profits came to $1.17bn on revenue of $1.5bn. This gave Ferrari $29.3m from its 2.5% profit share alone. It gets preferential treatment because it is the only team which has competed every year since F1 began in 1950 and has won more titles than any of its rivals. Ferrari is also the only car manufacturer involved with F1 which directly signs contracts with the F1 Group rather than using a subsidiary company to do so. This gives recourse directly to Ferrari itself if the contract is breached whereas a subsidiary company could easily be shut down. So, Ferrari get the largest payout based on their history within the sport taking $97m, which is actually more than Mercedes got for winning the Championship 2015 ($92m).  The historic/relevance payments are also made to Red Bull ($74m), Mercedes ($34m), McLaren ($34m) and Williams ($10m) (data for 2015) with the rest of the money split amongst the top 10 teams.  As an aside the re-introduction of Renault to the sport as a manufacturer in 2016 will also see them included in this pay structure, something they had to negotiate with Bernie as they planned to buy back the Lotus team. The inclusion of Lotus to this group only fortifies the financial gap to the smaller teams.

Ex Ferrari's chairman Luca di Montezemolo also benefits directly from having steered Ferrari to success in F1. He has been granted an option on a 0.25% stake in Formula 1 if it floats and in March 2012 he was appointed a non-executive director of the F1 Group's ultimate parent company Delta Topco.
What we also know is that until 2020 Ferrari has a right of veto in respect of the introduction/modification of any technical or sporting regulations (except for safety requirements). There are some conditions that must be met in order for this veto to be used including the proviso that the veto can only be used if it is not prejudicial to the traditional values of the championship and/or the image of the FIA, and that Ferrari considers that the new regulations are likely to have a substantial impact on its “legitimate interest”.

 

Car Numbering

Regular car numbering in Formula 1 was not adopted until 1973. Car numbers were awarded based roughly on the constructors' standings for year before. Those numbers became "'permanent". Only the team running the champion driver was allowed to change numbering for the following year and assuming No1 and No2 for its cars. The team previously holding No1 then took the numbers left vacant by the new No1 runner. This system was in force until 1996, when the present numbering method based on annual constructors' championship positions of every team took effect.
Today this is largely irrelevant as no-one can actually read small numbers on the cars in any case and drivers are distinguished by the yellow stripes on the roll structure camera mountings. At the moment no stripe means the team’s number one driver and a yellow stripe means the second driver.
A new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent numbers throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. A driver's "career" in Formula 1 will be deemed to have ended if he does not participate in an event for two entire consecutive Championship seasons, and after that his number became available for next driver. We have also yet to see whether the FIA will allow such numbers as 00, or 07, or even 007 come to that.
After Jules Bianchi death on 17.07.2015 from head injuries he sustained at the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix, FIA has announced that his race number - No.17 - will be retired from the F1 world championship in honour of the Frenchman, and, out of respect, this number can no longer be used for a car competing in the FIA Formula One World Championship.


As per the 2014 sporting regulations Article 21.2:
“Each car will carry the race number of its driver as published by the FIA at the beginning of the F1 season. This number must be clearly visible from the front of the car and on the driver’s crash helmet. Prior to the start of the 2014 World Championship season race numbers will be permanently allocated to drivers by ballot, such numbers must then be used by that driver during every F1 World Championship Event he takes part in throughout his career. Any new drivers, either at the start of or during a season, will also be allocated a permanent number in the same way. The only exception to this allocation process will be for the reigning World Champion who will have the option to use the number one. The number that was previously allocated to him will be reserved for him in subsequent seasons if he does not retain the title of World Champion.”
Although the rules suggest a random ballot, the FIA has clarified that the number selection process will be done as originally proposed, with drivers getting to choose in the order in which they finished in the 2013 Championship. If more than one driver chooses the same number, priority will be given to the driver who finished highest in the previous year's championship.

Anyway, to help you out, here are numbers that have been used:

3. Daniel Ricciardo
4. Max Chilton
5. Sebastian Vettel
6. Nico Rosberg
7. Kimi Raikkonen
8. Romain Grosjean
9. Marcus Ericsson
10. Kamui Kobayashi
11. Sergio Perez
12. Felipe Nasr
13. Pastor Maldonado
14. Fernando Alonso
17. Jules Bianchi (After Jules Bianchi death - No.17 - is permanently retired from F1)
19. Felipe Massa (retired at the end of season 2016)
20. Kevin Magnussen
21. Esteban Gutierrez
22. Jenson Button (to take sabbatical for one year - 2017)
25. Jean-Eric Vergne
26. Daniil Kvyat
27. Nico Hulkenberg
28. Will Stevens
30. Jolyon Palmer
31. Esteban Ocon
33. Max Verstappen
41. Susie Wolff
42. Fabio Leimer
44. Lewis Hamilton
45. Esteban Ocon
47. Stoffel Vandoorne
53. Alexander Rossi
55. Carlos Sainz Jr
77. Valtteri Bottas
88. Rio Haryanto
94. Pascal Wehrlein
98. Roberto Merhi
99. Adrian Sutil
Lance Stroll

The number "13" was not used, as per racing tradition. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number "13". As a result of this, the number "14" was often used by a one-car team or a third driver. In 2014, the number was selected by Pastor Maldonado.

The number "0" has been used on a few occaisions, mainly by Damon Hil in 1993 and 1994 after Nigel Mansell and Alain Prost, the 1992 and 1993 World Champions, left the sport. It will most likely never see any post-2013 use.

The number "6" has been used the most, with 910 races. The highest number ever used is "208", in a Radio Luxembourg-sponsored car for Lella Lombardi at the 1974 British Grand Prix. She did not qualify. It was also used in five non-championship races.

1950–1973 Numbers allocated by event organisers. Number system and method of allocation different for each event.
1973 Permanent numbers trialed in second half of season, roughly based on Constructor standings.
1974–1995 Permanent team numbers were fully implemented, initially based on the 1973 World Constructors' Championship placings. No. 1 was allocated to the World Drivers' Champion, and the only way numbers moved about was through the changing of the team for whom the World Champion drove for, or with a reallocation of spare numbers.
1996–2013 Team numbers ordered by World Constructors' Championship position of the previous season, with No. 1 still going to the World Drivers' Champion.
2014–present Drivers allowed to choose their own, permanent numbers between 2 and 99, and the World Drivers' Champion is allowed to use No. 1 (though this is not compulsory). In allocating out the numbers, drivers with a higher Championship position in the previous season are given higher preference.

 


Formula 1 Promotional Working Group (PWG)

In the years 2013 - '14, Formula 1 start losing more and more of its audience and this is no longer a secret. So, teams have set up a new Promotional Working Group to help come with ways of improving the sport for fans.  The group is looking at ways for fans to gain greater access to the sport, will aim to improve the experience of the viewers and will try to keep the interest of fans up away from grand prix weekends. Hopefully this will make the sport more appealing for everyone. Also, finding ways of working together with FOM, the FIA, F1's host circuits, and the media - to help shape Formula One into a package with broader fan appeal. Ideas that have already been discussed are opening up the paddock on Thursdays, a better experience for fans during pit lane walkabouts and more interaction with drivers on race weekends. Furthermore, there is the idea of a more cohesive social media push for F1 overall to ensure the sport is reaching and engaging the right audience.
The first meeting of the PWG was held before the race of 2014 Abu Dhabi GP, as representatives of teams got together to evaluate ways of making F1 more popular. They will be looking for promotional opportunities for the F1, to ensure that it moves forward. The Promotional Group ideas will then be put forward to the Formula Strategy Working Group for them to vote on with the agreed changes set to take affect from 2015. PWG is headed by Williams' deputy boss Claire Williams.

 

Grand Prix Drivers Association (GPDA)

Association that represents the interests of Formula 1 drivers.
The GPDA was founded in 1961 and was active during the 1960s and 1970s. Then, as now, the GPDA's primary objective was to improve and maintain safety standards. This led to boycotts of the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps in 1969 and the Nürburgring in 1970 and after 1976. Stirling Moss was first elected chairman. After Moss retired from the sport in 1963, Jo Bonnier succeeded him.
The organization was disbanded during the 1982 Formula One season due to the effects of the changing commercial organization of F1 and the conflicts between FOCA and FIA.
When the Austrian Roland Ratzenberger died in qualifying for the San Marino Grand Prix in 1994, he was the first F1 driver to perish during an event for 12 years. Driving for Simtek, Ratzenberger had only previously qualified for one F1 Grand Prix.
Next day, during the drivers' race briefing, a new Grand Prix Drivers Association was reformed to press for safety improvements. The GPDA's first directors were Michael Schumacher, Gerhard Berger, and Ayrton Senna.
Ayrton Sena died next day during the race.
The association has a permanent office in Monaco.
Membership of GPDA is not compulsory. Despite this, until recently all drivers were members. Joining the GPDA costs L2,000.
The members vote to decide their leaders. Currently there are again three directors of GPDA, one of whom is the chairman.

 

Drivers’ Commission

Following a mandate from the 2012 General Assembly, at the meeting of the World Motor Sport Council in Geneva March 2013, FIA World Motor Sports Council has approved the inauguration of a of a new body, Drivers’ Commission. The decision was made to set up the body which will represent “the rights and interests of drivers across all the disciplines” including single seater racing, touring cars and rallying. Plans to set up the Drivers' Commission were made last year following the granting of provisional recognition by the IOC (International Olympic Committee) of the FIA as a Federation.
Emerson Fittipaldi, F1 world champion in 1972 and 1974, takes on the presidency, with nine-time World Rally champion, Sebastien Loeb appointed as vice-president. The rights and interests of drivers across the disciplines will be represented by the following members:

FIA Drivers’ Commission members (in this moment)

Role

Driver

Discipline

Country

President

Emerson Fittpaldi

ex Formula 1

Brazil

Vice-president

Sebastien Loeb

Rally driver 

France

Single-seaters

Nigel Mansell

Formula 1

United Kingdom

Karun Chandhok

Formula 1

India

Maria de Villota** (***)

Formula 1

Spain

Sports cars, GTs and touring cars

Emanuele Pirro

Endurance

Itay

Yvan Muller

Touring cars WTCC

France

Adrian Fernandez

Endurance

Mexico

Rally and cross-country rally

Nasser Al Attiyah

Rally

Qatar

Marcus Gronholm

Rally

Finland

Daniel Elena

rally co-driver

Monaco

Other disciplines

Kenneth Hansen*

Moto speedway

Sweden

Danilo Rossi*

Karting

Italy

Keiko Ihara* **

FIA Endurance

Japan

* Subject to the ASN agreement
** As female representatives.
***On morning Friday, October 11th 2013 Maria de Villota has been found dead by emergency services in a hotel room in "Hotel Sevilla Congresos" in Seville, Spain.

 

Formula One Promoters Association (FOPA)

In May 2012 Formula One Promoters Association (FOPA) was registered as a company in Geneva, Switzerland, in a bid to gain a voice of their own, with Ron Walker, chairman of the Australian Grand Prix, listed as the chairman of the association. The circuits that host Formula One races have come together as a body in order to better represent themselves within the sport. The new organization will be looking to present a united voice for their interests, which many promoters believe have been threatened by proposed rule changes and issue of the cost of hosting races. The body has been created at an important moment for the sport with the new Concorde Agreement, the contract that binds the teams, F1's owners and the FIA together, yet to be completed, with the current agreement expiring at the end of this year. Key to the promoter's aims appears to be acquiring an input into technical changes that may affect the sport and in consequence the potential revenue from paying fans. The move is likely to prove significant: Circuit promoter fees account for 33.6% of F1′s total turnover of $1.22 bn, which is 1.6% more than the sport gets from TV and broadcast contracts. It is also seen as one of the key areas of growth for F1 revenues in future. Last year they paid £330m for the rights to host races, and look to paying spectators to cover these costs and governments having to cover the short-fall. Racing circuits have historically lacked a co-ordinated voice and the Formula One Promoters Association gives them the opportunity to have that.
FOPA is expected to work in a similar fashion to FOTA (the Formula One Teams Association) and the GPDA (Grand Prix Drivers' Association), which obviously speak respectively for the F1 teams and drivers - although FOTA now only represents seven of the twelve teams.
The new organization, for the moment at least, is likely to be supported by Bernie Ecclestone, an ally of Walker, who is also opposed to rule changes that may effect the spectacle of the sport and had threatened to sue the FIA over the proposed engine changes. However, in the long term the issue of the cost of hosting races will almost certainly reach the agenda, which may prove more troublesome, with many of the non-government backed circuits finding it increasingly difficult to meet the prices demanded by F1.


International Sporting Code

The FIA code that contains all the regulations governing international racing. The purpose of this Code and its appendices is to encourage and facilitate international motor sport. It can't be enforced so as to prevent or impede a competition or the participation of a competitor, save where the FIA concludes that this is necessary for the safe, fair or orderly conduct of motor sport. International Sporting Code regulates and describes all sorts of racing, including hill climb, circuit races, drag races, rallies and cross-country rallies, marathon cross-country rallies, Baja cross-country rallies, Truck racing, historic car events and all sorts of open cockpit races.

 

Manufacturers

Any manufacturers wanting to enter the Formula 1 must prove to the FIA that they have designed and built the chassis of their racing cars. They are also obliged to compete in all the races in a particular season and to prove that they possess the necessary technical and financial means.


Parc fermé

Restricted area of the pit lane in which the FIA's technical commissioners inspect the cars after each race to make sure they conform to technical regulations. Since the 2003 season, the cars must be taken into the parc fermé after the qualifying session. They are not cleared until Sunday morning.


F1 Point system

The Driver's and Constructor's Championships are decided by points, which are awarded according to the place in which a driver classifies at each grand prix. I've never quite understood why, but for years, the world championship was complicated by the system, in which only a certain number of a driver's results would count towards the world championship. I imagine it was done to put a premium on race wins, rather then safe second or third places - a concept which Bernie Ecclestone has been keen to change in recent years. For the first four seasons of the official world championship (1950-53) only a driver's best four results counted towards the title (there were usually only seven or eight races back then). Between 1954 and 1966 either the best five or six results were counted ... and then things got even more complicated: between 1967 and 1978 the championship was split into two halves, and a driver could discard his worst result from each half.
In 1979 he could count the best four results from each half of the year, and in 1980 his top five. Then in 1981 the halves were ignored and a driver could count his best 11 results of the season - and then, in 1991, the current system was adopted in which all points gained counted towards the title. Despite all this, there have only been two seasons when a different champion would have been crowned had all the results and points been counted - in 1964, when Graham Hill collected 41 points to John Surtees's 40, but had to discard two so finished one behind; and in 1988, when Alain Prost ended up with 104 points to Ayrton Senna's 94, but had to discard 18 points, whereas Senna only lost four: he ended up winning by 90 points to Prost's 87 when the best 11 results were counted.

From the start of the world championship in 1950 up until 1959, points were awarded from first to fifth place in 8-6-4-3-2 format. There was also a point given to the driver who set fastest lap, though if several drivers set an identical time, the point was split equally. This led to a rather ridiculous situation at the 1954 British Grand Prix when a solitary point had to be split seven ways. Juan Manuel Fangio, Stirling Moss, Jose Froilan Gonzalez, Mike Hawthorn, Jean Behra, Alberto Ascari and Onofre Marimon were each awarded 0.14 of a point! This bizarre event was avoided from 1960 onwards when the point for fastest lap was dropped.
In 1960, the number of point scorers per race was increased so that the first six drivers home were all rewarded. The system remained virtually unchanged for the next 43 years, albeit with the race winner’s haul upgraded to nine points (in 1961) and then to ten points (in 1991).
Since the 2003 season, the first eight drivers in each race are awarded points for the championship ranking. The winner of the grand prix was awarded 10 points, the runners-up receive 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively.
The system was revised in 2010 season because of the 3 new teams entering the sport. Under the new system, the race winner takes 25 points, with 18 and 15 being awarded for second and third places respectively. The next seven finishers will score 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2 and 1 point respectively. To receive points a racer need not finish the race, but at least 90% of the winner's race distance must be completed. Therefore, it is possible for a driver to receive some points even though he retired before the end of the race. In that case the scoring is based on the distance completed in comparison to other drivers.
If the race had for some reason to be abandoned before 75% of the planned distance (rounded up to the nearest lap) had been completed, then the points awarded are halved: 12.5, 9, 7.5, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0.5, and if less than two laps have been completed, no points are awarded.
It wasn’t until 1958 that a world championship for constructors was introduced. Sum of points gained by each of two team drivers count toward Constructors' World Championship point total.

The championship winner is the driver who earns the most points over the season and the constructor with the most points is declared the Constructors' World Champion. If the top two drivers finish level on points, then the one with more victories in the season wins. Should they each have the same number of victories, then the one with the most second place finishes wins, etc. Same system is used to determine constructor championship winner.
A driver can switch teams during the season and keep any points gained at the previous team.

Next season (2014) Formula One will introduce a new regulation to award double points at the final race of the season by increasing the number of points available to a wining driver from 25 to 50. All this in an effort to keep the battle for both the Constructors' and Drivers' Championship alive until the end of the season. The F1 teams, the FIA and Formula One Management backed the idea with the vote being made in private. After idea sink a bit, most drivers and team bosses have expressed their objection to the scheme and it has met vociferous opposition from fans. Decision has been widely criticized by the media as to artificial and lasted only one year.

Abu Dhabi 2014 double point scoring

Place

Race points

1st

50

2nd

36

3rd

30

4th

24

5th

20

6th

16

7th

12

8th

8

9th

4

10th

2



Race Commission

This committee, which the FIA commissions for each race weekend, monitors the activities on the circuit and makes sure the safety rules and regulations are upheld. The national race director is appointed by the racing authority of the country that runs a grand prix event. He must have an FIA super-license and is responsible for coordinating all the officials during the race. He co-operates with his superior, the FIA race director.

 

Race Director

The FIA race director supervises the safety measures on the race weekend and makes improvements when necessary. Additionally, he decides whether the safety car should be used or whether the race should be stopped. If a driver does not behave in a sportsmanlike manner or if he endangers a competitor, the race director can recommend a penalty. The current FIA race director is Charlie Whiting from Great Britain.


Scrutineering

All cars must undergo scrutineering at every Grand Prix. Scrutineering is the process that determines that the cars are safe to race and also adhere to the strict technical rules of Formula One.


Steward

The stewards run the race weekend at a Grand Prix. They make all the decisions with regard to rules, penalties and incidents. Stewards differ to marshals in that they control the event from race control as opposed to trackside.


Super-license

Michael Schumacher superlicence for 1991
Michael Schumacher superlicence issued for 1991

Super-licence is required for the Formula One World Championship for Drivers and is driving license issued by the FIA. In the interest of safety, it is only granted on the basis of good results in the junior series or, in exceptional cases, if other proof of ability can be supplied, and achieved 300 kilometers of running in a current Formula One car at good racing speed. It may also be granted under provisional terms.
To qualify for an FIA Super Licence the requesting driver must already be the holder of a Grade A competition licence, and additionally meet the requirements of the FIA International Sporting Code.

From 2016 FIA will use a new F1 superlicence system. It's a massive shake-up. In future drivers will have accumulated 40 points over a three-year period. Points allocation is based on which other motorsport series they have participated in and the level of results they achieved.
The table with junior categories eligible for points, in order of weighting you can see below.
Drivers will have also have to be at least 18-years old, have spent at least two years in junior single-seater categories, hold a valid road driver’s licence and pass a test on the Formula One sporting regulations. The existing requirement of completing 300 kilometers in a recent F1 car also remains.

The FIA charges the licence holder an annual fee. According to a report on the BBC, the cost of a super licence rose by an average £8,700 in 2009, and there was an extra charge of € 2,100 per point earned in previous year - up from €447 per point in 2007. In 2010, Lewis Hamilton would pay £242,000 for his licence for the season.
In November 2012, however, FIA announced they would again increase the cost of the super licence. According to McLaren team principal Martin Whitmarsh, the proposed increase would lead to a basic fee of €10,000 ($12,800) for the super licence plus €1,000 ($1,280) for each world championship point. 2009 Formula 1 World Driver's Champion Jenson Button objected, and expressed his position that all current F1 drivers should pay the same flat fee for their super licence. In 2009, Button's total super licensing costs were approximately €1M ($1.28M)

Rules for 2016:

5. Qualification for the Super Licence
The FIA Formula One Driver Super Licence is issued by the FIA.
5.1 Qualifications
5.1.1 The driver must be the holder of a current FIA International Grade A licence.
5.1.2 The driver must be the holder of a valid driving licence when he applies for a Super Licence for the first time.
5.1.3 The driver must be at least 18 years old at the start of the event of his first F1 race weekend.
5.1.4 a) The first time he applies for a Super Licence, the driver must successfully complete a question session regarding the most important points of the International Sporting Code and of the F1 Sporting Regulations.
b) For all successive F1 Super Licence requests, the F1 team concerned has to certify, through the F1 Super Licence application form, that they have held a briefing with their driver about the most important points of the International Sporting Code and of the F1 Sporting Regulations.
5.1.5 The driver must have completed at least 80% of each of two full seasons of any of the Championships reported in Supplement 1.
5.1.6 The F1 Team concerned must show that the applicant has driven at least 300 km in a representative Formula One car(*) consistently at racing speeds, over a maximum period of 2 days, completed not more than 180 days prior to the application and certified by the ASN of the country in which the test took place.
(*)TCC or TPC as defined in the F1 Sporting Regulations.
5.1.7 The driver must also satisfy at least one of the following requirements:
a) Have made at least five starts in races counting for the FIA Formula One World Championship for Drivers the previous year, or at least 15 starts within the previous 3 years.
b) Have accumulated at least 40 points during the three-year period preceding his application (Championships and points listed in Supplement 2).

Supplement 2:

Championship position

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

9th

10th

Future FIA F2 Championship

40

40

40

30

20

10

8

6

4

3

GP2 Series

40

40

30

20

10

8

6

4

3

2

European F3 Championship

40

30

20

10

8

6

4

3

2

1

FIA WEC (LMP1 only)

40

30

20

10

8

6

4

3

2

1

Formula E

40

30

20

10

8

6

4

3

2

1

IndyCar Series

40

30

20

10

8

6

4

3

2

1

Formula Renault 3.5 V8

35

25

20

15

10

7

5

3

2

1

GP3 Series

30

20

15

10

7

5

3

2

1

0

Super Formula

25

20

15

10

7

5

3

2

1

0

WTCC

15

12

10

7

5

3

2

1

0

0

DTM

15

12

10

7

5

3

2

1

0

0

Indy Lights

15

12

10

7

5

3

2

1

0

0

V8 Supercars

13

10

9

6

4

3

2

1

0

0

National FIA Formula 4 championships

12

10

7

5

3

2

1

0

0

0

National F3 championships

10

7

5

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

Formula Renault (EurocupAlpsNEC)

10

7

5

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

Karting Wrld (CIK-FIA ) Championship (Senior)

5

3

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0


On the beginning of year 2016, points achieved up to now for drivers already driving F1 car do not matter and that is fortunate for some drivers racing in F1 so far. The 2016 F1 season will be the first in which any new drivers entering the championship must satisfy new criteria. Under the new system there would be no superlicences for Pascal Wehrlein (16), Rio Haryanto (20), Roberto Merhi (20), Will Stevens (22), Max Verstappen (27 points), Daniil Kyat (30 points), Carlos Sainz Jr (35 points) or Kevin Magnussen (35). The only new driver in 2016 who was properly qualified was Jolyon Palmer with 46 points. The ousted Alexander Rossi would also have qualified with 43 points to his name. It is worth noting that f1fanatic site has worked out that the most qualified driver in super licence points terms is André Lotterer with a total of 140 points, ahead of Stoffel Vandoorne with 105 and IndyCar Champion Scott Dixon with 100 points.

For Free practice only licence there is a separate, more flexible rules (Appendix L 2015 of 2015 F1 Sporting Regulations):

5.2 Qualification for Free Practice Only Licence
5.2.1 The driver must be the holder of a current FIA International Grade A licence.
5.2
.2 The driver must be the holder of a valid driving licence when he applies for a Super Licence for the first time.
5.2.3 The driver must be at least 18 years old at the start of the event of his first F1 race weekend.
5.2.4 a) The first time he applies for a Super Licence, the driver must successfully complete a question session regarding the most important points of the International Sporting Code and of the F1 Sporting Regulations.
b) For all successive F1 Super Licence requests, the F1 team concerned has to certify, through the F1 Super Licence application form, that they have held a briefing with their driver about the most important points of the International Sporting Code and of the F1
Sporting Regulations.
5.2.5 The driver must be judged by the FIA to have consistently demonstrated outstanding ability in single-seater formula cars. The F1 team concerned must show that the applicant has driven at
least 300 km in a representative Formula One car(*) consistently at racing speeds, over a maximum period of 2 days, completed not more than 180 days prior to the application and certified by the ASN of the country in which the test took place.
(*)TCC or TPC as defined in the F1 Sporting Regulations
5.2.6 The driver will be on probation for a period of 12 months, during which the Super Licence will be held provisionally and subject to review at any time.

The nationality that appears on the racing licence is the same one that appears on the driver's passport. This is not necessarily the same as the country issuing the racing licence. A Frenchman living in Germany can race with a German licence, but the nationality displayed would still be French. In order to race as German, the driver would need to have German nationality as well. Drivers with multiple citizenship choose their "official" nationality.

 

 

Team Entry fee

The much discussed entry fee hike for F1 teams was confirmed this week, as the 2013 Sporting Regulations were published by the FIA.
FIA has raised the fees from a standard 309,000 euros for all teams to a sliding scale depending on results. Last years there was no additional payments required for points scored in the previous year, however, next year there will be.
Under the new rules for 2013:
…“The winner of the 2012 World Championship for Constructors will be required to pay a basic fee of US$500 000 plus US$6 000 for each point gained in the 2012 (championship),” read Appendix seven of the 2013 sporting regulations. Every other competitor will be required to pay a basic fee of US$500 000 plus US$5 000 for each point gained..."…

The FIA Sporting Regulations state that the basic fee must be paid at the time of entry and the balance (per point fee) is due on November 30th preceding the year the entry is for. Normally the entry should be made during the period between 30 June to 15 July.
This entry fee increase is because the FIA wants a greater share of the approximately $1.5 billion turnover the sport generates each season, as FIA president Jean Todt told the Financial Times:
“FIA is a non-profit organization but we need to run our organization,” he said. “We need to encourage development of the sport, we need to encourage development of action for road safety. We cannot be a federation without having any revenue. So, where do we find our revenues?”

For most of the midfield teams scoring around 50 to 80 points a season, the costs will not be substantially greater than in the past. In fact, for a mid-range team, considering the fact that all the extra facilities that they pay for separately (Official timing, weather forecasts, crash test FIA expenses, …) at the moment are rolled into that entrance fee, price will be very similar overall.
It’s going to make more substantial difference for those teams who finish in the top three or four of the championship. The biggest, with more income, will have to pay more. The smallest, with less income, will be able to pay less.

For example, here is the list of fees for teams at 2013 entry list. Red Bull Racing have won constructor championship at 2012:

Ch.
Position
Team Points Fee
1. Red Bull Racing 460 points $3.26 million
2. Ferrari 400 points $2.5 million
3. McLaren 378 points $2.39 million
4. Lotus 303 points $2.015 million
5. Mercedes 142 points $1.21 million
6. Sauber 126 points $1.13 million
7. Force India 109 points $1.045 million
8. Williams 76 points $0.88 million
9. Toro Rosso 26 points $0.63 million
10. Caterham 0 points $0.5 million
11. Marussia 0 points $0.5 million
12. HRT* 0 points $0.5 million

* At the time of writing of this article, HRT Formula 1 team looks set to officially close down after failing to find a buyer before the FIA's payment deadline for 2013 entries on 30 of November 2012.


Technical Committee

2013 disbanded in favour of a "Strategy Working Group"


Sporting Working group

2013 disbanded in favour of a "Strategy Working Group"

Strategy Working Group

One of the outcomes of meeting in Paris on October 25, 2012 between the FIA, Bernie Ecclestone and the F1 teams was the structure by which the rules are made, with a new structure called the “F1 Strategy Group” set to play a pivotal role.
Prior to 2013, any decision to change the sporting or technical regulations required the agreement of at least 70% (or nine votes) of the teams in order for those changes to be accepted. From 2013 onwards, those changes will only need a 51% majority (six teams) in order to be approved.
The new group, a separate entity from the F1 Commission, will comprise three bodies, each holding six seats; the commercial rights holder, the FIA and the teams. Also one engine supplier and six event promoters.
Of these teams five will be permanent members and one will rotate. The five permanent members are Red Bull, McLaren, Ferrari, Mercedes and Williams. The rotating seat will be occupied by the highest placed team other than the top four in the previous year’s championship.
This F1 Strategy Group will decide on all future technical and sporting regulations. It will take advice from qualified engineers on technical matters, but will make the ultimate decisions. The Technical and Sporting Working Groups, the committees responsible for deciding upon the technical and sporting regulations, are also disbanded in favour of a "Strategy Working Group". FIA President Jean Todt described the changes as necessary and designed to give each of the stakeholders in the sport a proportionate representation in deciding the future of Formula One.

My humble opinion is that this will lead ultimately to the sport polarizing into a few top "works" teams with the rest of the small and medium sized teams out of the equation without vote. The method of choosing the teams that sit by right is ill-defined at best because Ferrari, McLaren, Red Racing, Mercedes and Williams are not the five most successful teams still in operation. Concept of legacy teams, a definition that somehow allows for the inclusion of Mercedes and Red Bull - neither of which has logged a decade in the sport in their current guises - and the exclusion of Sauber, with its twenty + year history in Formula One. If the F1 Strategy Group is to be truly representative of the teams, it should be made up of a mix of outfits with large and small budgets, of independent-privateers and those teams backed or owned by the major manufacturers. Front-runners, back-markers, and mid-fielders should all have a voice, as they all have different strategic interests.
Where previously, the teams would all meet to have an input into new ideas and directions for the sport, now it will be a group of just six teams, five of them rich teams. The only say small teams have is when the findings and decisions of the F1 Strategy Group are passed to the F1 commission for ratification. But as the F1 commission is a large group that also contains suppliers and promoters, the voice of the small and medium sized teams is very much diluted. Should the F1 Commission reject an idea mooted by the Strategy Group they must then go back to the drawing board and redraft until an agreeable solution is found.

The fear among "the excluded" is that this group's ultimate intention is to divide the competitors into "works" teams and customer teams. Small teams CEO's has come out very strongly against the new body, calling into question its legality and asking how this can been seen as fair and equitable. There is genuine concern among some of the teams on the Strategy Group, particularly the ones who are public companies. This is not ethical and democratic governance. "All teams basically pay the same amount to go racing," he told the Telegraph. "The only differentials are in drivers' salaries and hospitality. And yet some teams have no say in how the sport is run. It could certainly be deemed abuse of a dominant position."

 

Technical delegate

The FIA technical delegate, currently Jo Bauer from Germany, leads the team of technical inspectors (so-called scrutineers). They check whether the cars meet the regulations. If the technical delegate does not
think a car conforms to the rules, he makes a report to the racing commissioners, who are authorized to impose penalties.


World champion

In Formula 1, two World Championship titles are awarded – the drivers' title and the manufacturers' title. The drivers' title has existed since 1950, and the manufacturers' title was introduced in 1958. For the drivers, the points won in all the races are added up. If several drivers have the same points total, the title is determined by the final positions they achieved: the number of first places, followed by the number of second places, etc. In the manufacturers' division, the points that both of the team's drivers earn each race are added up.

 

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Books to read


Some useful links:

Technical
- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

Autosport
 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

James Allen on F1
- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

Joe Saward blog
- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

Vital F1
 - vitalf1.com/ is another great site for Motor Sports fan’s like me. Site is relatively new, but great fun, with great discussion forum, Formula 1 news and forum.

 GP update
- f1.gpupdate.net, Site with fresh news from Formula 1

Planet F1
 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

Gurney flap
 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4mula1
-
4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950

Racecar engineering
-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

FIA
 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

Wikipedia
 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

Sutton Images

grandprix photo

Carbibles
 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

Dare To Be Different
- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.